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  2. The presidency of Theodore Roosevelt;
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  5. The Square Deal.

These powerful companies accumulated vast profits operating in the economic system of Free Enterprise and 'Laissez-Faire'. These massive corporations were l argely free of state control or federal regulations.

Roosevelt's progressive ideas and his Square Deal Policy in relation to Control of the Corporations were demonstrated during the Anthracite Coal Strike of saw President Roosevelt act as a mediator during the bitter dispute. Although he had no legal right to intervene, President Roosevelt summoned mine owners and the union to Washington to discuss the situation advocating conciliation and arbitration. He took the unprecedented action of threatening to seize mines and operate them with federal troops if the mine owners refused to compromise.

Consumer protection Roosevelt's Square Deal policy in relation to Consumer protection was highly influenced by the publication of 'The Jungle' by Upton Sinclair, who was branded as a Muckraker by powerful magnets in the food indu stry. The Meat Inspection Act was in direct response to 'The Jungle' and initiated federal inspection throughout the meat making process. Conservation of Natural Resources Roosevelt's Square Deal policy in relation to the Conservation of natural resources started in with the establishment of the National Forest Service.

Theodore Roosevelt and the Square Deal

Square Deal - President Theodore Roosevelt Video The article on the Square Deal provides detailed facts and a summary of one of the important events during his presidential term in office. The following video will give you additional important facts and dates about the political events experienced by the 26th American President whose presidency spanned from September 14, to March 4, Square Deal.

Maturation Era. US American History.

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Theodore Roosevelt and the Progressive Movement Theodore Roosevelt was highly influential during the Progressive Era focusing on efficiency and fairness. Conservation of natural resources Square Deal for kids: First Published Faced with Roosevelt's plan, the owners and labor unions agreed to submit their cases to a commission and abide by its recommendations. Roosevelt called the settlement of the coal strike a "square deal," inferring that everyone gained fairly from the agreement. That term soon became synonymous with Roosevelt's domestic program. The Square Deal worked to balance competing interests to create a fair deal for all sides: TR recognized that his program was not perfectly neutral because the government needed to intervene more actively on behalf of the general public to ensure economic opportunity for all.

Roosevelt was the first President to name his domestic program and the practice soon became commonplace, with Woodrow Wilson's New Freedom, Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal, and Harry S.

The age of empire

Truman's Fair Deal. Roosevelt was the nation's first conservationist President. Everywhere he went, he preached the need to preserve woodlands and mountain ranges as places of refuge and retreat. He identified the American character with the nation's wilderness regions, believing that our western and frontier heritage had shaped American values, behavior, and culture. The President wanted the United States to change from exploiting natural resources to carefully managing them.

In , Roosevelt signed the Newlands Reclamation Bill, which used money from federal land sales to build reservoirs and irrigation works to promote agriculture in the arid West.

Square Deal - Wikipedia

After he won reelection in his own right in , Roosevelt felt more empowered to make significant changes in this domain. This gave the Forest Service, and Pinchot as head of it, more power to achieve its goals. Together, Roosevelt and Pinchot reduced the role of state and local government in the management of natural resources, a policy that met with considerable resistance. Only the federal government, they argued, had the resources to oversee these efforts.

Roosevelt used his presidential authority to issue executive orders to create new national forests, increasing the amount of protected land from 42 million acres to million acres. The President also created five national parks, eighteen national monuments, and 51 wildlife refuges. The emergence of a mass-circulation independent press at around the turn of the century changed the nature of print media in the United States.

Instead of partisan publications that touted a party line, the national media was becoming more independent and more likely to expose scandals and abuses. This era marked the beginning of investigative journalism, and the reporters who led the effort were known as "muckrakers," a term first used by Roosevelt in a speech. One of the best examples of Roosevelt's relationship with the muckrakers came after he read Upton Sinclair's The Jungle, which described in lurid detail the filthy conditions in the meat packing industry—where rats, putrid meat, and poisoned rat bait were routinely ground up into sausages.

Both pieces of legislation endeared him to the public and to those corporations that favored government regulation as a means of achieving national consumer standards. Roosevelt was the first President to use the power of the media to appeal directly to the American people. He understood that his forceful personality, his rambunctious family, and his many opinions made good copy for the press.


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  • He also knew that the media was a good way for him to reach out to the people, bypassing political parties and political machines. He used the media as a "bully pulpit" to influence public opinion. Theodore Roosevelt reflected the racial attitudes of his time, and his domestic record on race and civil rights was a mixed bag. He did little to preserve black suffrage in the South as those states increasingly disenfranchised blacks.

    He believed that African Americans as a race were inferior to whites, but he thought many black individuals were superior to white individuals and should be able to prove their merit. He caused a major controversy early in his presidency when he invited Booker T. Washington to dine with him at the White House in October Roosevelt wanted to talk to Washington about patronage appointments in the South, and he was surprised by the vilification he received in the Southern press; he did not apologize for his actions.


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    • Although he appointed blacks to some patronage positions in the South, he was generally unwilling to fight the political battles necessary to win their appointment. One incident in particular taints Roosevelt's reputation on racial issues. In , a small group of black soldiers was accused of going on a shooting spree in Brownsville, Texas, killing one white man and wounding another.

      Despite conflicting accounts and the lack of physical evidence, the Army assumed the guilt of the black soldiers. When not one of them admitted responsibility, an irritated Roosevelt ordered the dishonorable discharge of three companies of black soldiers men without a trial. Roosevelt and the white establishment had assumed the soldiers were guilty without affording them the opportunity for a trial to confront their accusers or prove their innocence.

      Grant Rutherford B. Hayes James A. Garfield Chester A. Roosevelt Harry S. Truman Dwight D. Eisenhower John F. Kennedy Lyndon B. Bush Bill Clinton George W. Bush Barack Obama Donald Trump. Help inform the discussion Support the Miller Center. University of Virginia Miller Center. Theodore Roosevelt: Domestic Affairs. Breadcrumb U.